The importance of cheap and reliable auto parts

We all need to be able to get auto parts at one time or another. Whether you work on your own car or are a professional mechanic, being able to get the parts you need when you need them is essential. Of course, new auto parts can end up being quite expensive, which is why it’s often a good idea to look for used or redesigned auto parts to save a bit of money. The benefit of using re-engineered auto parts is the fact that not only will you be able to get them at a discounted price, but they will also likely be of better quality than typical used auto parts due to the fact that they have been re-engineered.

If you are a professional mechanic, you will always want to ensure that you provide your customers with the best quality service at the lowest possible price. This means that whatever parts are needed to get your car repaired, you should be able to find affordable prices for your customers. They’re already paying you for your labor, so adding expensive parts on top of your bill will only cause them even more of a hassle. Because you care about your customers and want them to come back to you every time they need help with their cars, it’s essential that you do everything you can to provide them with the lowest rates possible.

Of course, if you give them cheap service with cheap parts and they end up having problems, they’re also not likely to come back to you for car service if they feel like you didn’t do a good job or installed faulty parts on their car. This is why redesigned auto parts are the best of both worlds. Not only can you offer great prices to your customers to undercut the competition, but you can also offer them high-quality parts to set them up for a long time. The less a customer has to return to a mechanic, the more likely they are to trust the mechanic.

If you own your own shop, or just work on cars in your spare time for a little extra money, being able to provide affordable, high-quality parts to your customers is essential to profitable business. Even if you only work on your own vehicles, being able to save money on good parts is definitely a plus. The best thing one can do is search the internet to find the best quality at the most affordable prices. If you can do that, both you and your customers will end up happy. After all, any business is about providing the best possible services.

Old clichés: dissection of a silver lining

After staring at my computer for three long hours, listening to Peter White’s Just Another Day over and over again on iTunes, it suddenly hit me! How our whole world has been filled with words. They come in sets, although some are effective in their singular forms, and all are stored in our individual brains. We use them to survive, to communicate. So I thought, why not write about a good set of words? And what better setting than the one we all know as a cliché.

Old clichés have played a vital role in our existence as people. I wonder if this thought has ever crossed their minds. How does one seem to automatically think of a good cliché to describe situations? Let me focus on the term “a silver lining” for a moment. John Milton’s phrase, better known as “every cloud has a silver lining” is best described on Wikipedia (the popular encyclopedia) as a metaphor for optimism and is classified as an idiom. Added George Lansbury’s cartoon drawing of a man experiencing heavy rain, protected by his “Brolski” as he called it, with the word incorruptibility written on the umbrella. Delving into this cliché, this play on words. Then I realized how big his role has been in the life of a normal person! Advertise him from life’s disappointments. Like the mention of this metaphor every time we miss the morning bus, are late for an important meeting, lose a job, there seems to be an endless list of situations where this phrase could better serve its good purpose. Well worth keeping intact in one’s databank as a weapon to handle the unsuspecting. Oh my gosh! events.

Going further, let’s take a deeper look at “a silver lining” as a member of the long list as something similar to a sentence. In a situation where a loved one is lost, be it a friend, a lover, a neighbor, or even a dog. Wouldn’t these three words work just as well for anyone as a sentence would? Doesn’t it give us the same feeling of being saved from a bad feeling? As the dissection progresses, I begin to realize how powerful “a silver lining” is. Three simple words, which require a clear definition, and once their meaning is clearly understood, can be used as an effective tool of some kind.

The other week, a good friend told me a story. He heard a light knock on his bedroom door and was pleasantly surprised to discover that she was his mother. She says, “Let’s talk.” So she walks away from her computer and follows her mother into the kitchen. That place in her home that she has become the heart of, as in most of our own homes. They had been expecting a very large property sale. Her mother has been working on this project for years and it was clearly a good time for her efforts to be well rewarded. It was also a deal that would solve most of his current difficulties and pave the way to a more comfortable life. Her mother, beaming with pride, announces that they are about to close a big deal and that she is already working on all the paperwork, including a paycheck. By this time, all the other members of her family had joined them, and everyone had been excited about the great “blessing”. They were a Catholic family and most of the fortune was attributed to blessings.

The whole family now goes to the next step of looking for a house to buy, calling the 20 realtors. They all jump into their vehicle and drive from house to house, from corridor to corridor. Keep track of which house was the best, at the most reasonable price. Even before they closed their eyes to sleep, their thoughts were focused on the upcoming closing of this great business. A week goes by and the same thing happens. The mother knocks on the door of her daughter’s room, but this time it was not good news. The buyer had momentarily retracted! Ah, a true Oh-My-God moment! Now, almost crying mother and daughter sit together in the same kitchen and automatically say: “it could be a blessing of some kind, surely God has something better for all of us”. If this mother and her son had been Americans, they would surely have used “a silver lining” to save them both from heartbreak and disappointment.

This story clearly shows us how our “ray of light” star of stars has both power and weight in even the simplest of people, homes, and situations. I could tell another story, this time taking place in the highest court on earth, but it would make my story too long and I do not wish to bore you.

At the end of this text, I hope to have given “a silver lining” the tribute to his existence in our lives. Hope to see you again when I move up to the second top star on my Old Cliches list. But until then, remember to keep these three words and their meaning close at hand. They are free and easy to use.

Ford-Lincoln 1930’s K-Series V12 Fine Luxury Automobiles

The Lincoln K-Series V12, often referred to simply as “Ford’s K Series”, was a line of high-end luxury automobiles built by the Lincoln Division of Ford Motor Company during the economic depression of the 1930s. Lincoln K-series were built between 1932 and 1939. It was an ultra-luxury premium product that was being delivered and marketed in the auto market at the wrong time. Perhaps it could be said that “there are always people with money” and it is important to have a flagship for your brand – in this case the competition was against Cadillac V12 road cars – yet Ford and its Lincoln division fought valiantly to keep the selling price under the $4,000 mark.

The history of the Lincoln K-Series V12 model line goes like this. Mr. Henry Leland resigned from Cadillac in 1917, just after World War I ended, and developed a new automobile for 1921 which he named the “Lincoln.” Lincoln was not yet part of the Ford empire, it was Ford’s own entity. This time period in terms of the auto industry in the US and around the world was one of “consolidation” where smaller, more entrepreneurial auto manufacturing companies were gobbled up by larger companies with more financial resources, of marketing and sales. Lincoln was one of those entities acquired by Ford in 1922.

Mr. Henry Ford himself was happy to allow his company’s Lincoln division to continue to manufacture exclusive small numbers for over ten years before the first “Ford-Lincoln” (the Zephyr) was designed. The new management continued to build “Lincoln V8s” for ten years, but in 1932 they announced the lavish and rather unique K Series cars, one of which (specifically the KB model) had a 7.3 liter V12 engine.

These cars were beautifully made and downright impressive rather than simply attractive to look at and admire as road accessories. Their quantity-production precision engineering was obvious, but they were merely one of only seven “V12s” on the US car market in 1932. Sales figures were therefore low. Just over 2,000 were sold in the automotive sales and marketing year of 1933. Although the KA, which had a V8 engine, got a smaller 6.2-liter V12 edition in 1933, it only had a retail price of $2,700, which put it at the luxury end of the car market out of reach for what it was. then considered “rich” (but impoverished) Americans. Still, there was a lot of interest in the technical details in general.

The chassis and suspension were totally conventional, but the engine was a mix of old and new. Among its technical details were a 65 degree angle between banks (60 degrees was then the norm and would have provided a perfect balance), lateral valves and removable cylinder blocks in a light alloy crankcase. There was synchronization in the gearbox (all of America was following GM’s lead in 1928) and a freewheel feature in the setup. Surprisingly, the brakes were mechanically actuated, but had a vacuum “servo” to assist the driver/chauffeur.

In 1934 a new Lincoln model was announced to replace the original KA and KB; this had a slightly smaller 6.8 liter (414 cu in) engine, aluminum cylinder heads, and a top speed of 100 miles per hour mph. There was still a major redesign a year or two later. However, sales continued to drop and decline with the last K-series Lincoln V12 being built and rolling out of the Ford-Lincoln production facility in 1939.

However, the Lincoln name and the exclusive marquee had been established by this product. The Ford-designed Lincoln-Zephyr, bearing this prestigious brand name, was an ultra-fast vehicle and filled a niche lower-priced car market on the highways. It began to be sold as if it were the Ford Mustang of its time. So while the Ford-Lincoln K-Series V12 was a case of a great product coming up against stiff competition and a price higher than most potential customers in its market could afford. However, the Ford-Lincoln K12 V12 laid the foundation for the founding and success of the giant Ford Motor Company’s Lincoln division, serving as Ford’s high-end prestige premium faceplate.

How To Choose The Right Type Of Bike Pedal: Platform Vs Clip Vs Clipless

Choosing the ideal bicycle pedals for you:

There are three basic types of bicycle pedals. There are platform, with clip and without clip. Each type has a unique set of advantages and disadvantages. Choosing the right pedal for you can have a big influence on the way you ride and the performance of the bike. It’s important to know the pros and cons of each type before buying a mountain bike or when looking for new bike pedals. The pedals are the main connection between you and your bike!

Platform or Flat Style Bicycle Pedals (also known as “Flats”):

This is a traditional pedal shape that most people are familiar with. Platform pedals are easy to use and are ideal for those who prefer to ride in soft-soled shoes. They are probably the most universal of the types of bicycle pedals, as anyone can use them with almost any style of shoe. They do not offer any direct connection between your foot and the bike, however they are designed to provide a good amount of grip and come in unlimited configurations and grip levels. Platform pedals offer instant foot removal from the pedal for any reason, at any time, without obstruction.

Platform Pedal Pros and Cons:


  • Easy to use
  • No need for special footwear
  • Nothing holds you to the bike
  • Large surface area provides better contact for your feet.


  • Lack of power transfer to the pedal on the upstroke
  • Pedal teeth can hurt if foot slips
  • Loss of pedaling efficiency

Cage or toe clip style bike pedals:

This type of mountain bike pedal is probably the second most popular style. With this type of pedal, you slide your foot into a cage that is attached to the pedal and the cage has a strap that fits around the top of your foot. Toe clips or cages offer advantages over standard platform pedals because they allow the rider to lift up and push down on the pedal. They also help secure your foot to the pedal to prevent your foot from slipping off the pedal and scraping your shin with your fists. They also offer the ability to easily remove your foot if needed and are popular with people who cycle in traffic and need to make frequent stops.

Pros and Cons of the Cage or Toe Clip Pedal:


  • Easy to learn to use
  • Riders can use power to both push down and lift off the pedal.
  • No special footwear necessary


  • Some loss of power, the toe clip style cannot capture all the energy of the pedaling cycle like clipless pedals can.
  • Slightly harder to get in and out of than platform pedals

Automatic pedals for bicycles:

Clipless bike pedals are often the most popular choice for mountain bike riders. They work by directly attaching the foot to the pedal. Special shoes are worn that have a cleat placed in the sole and “hook” into the pedal receiver. This provides the most efficient transfer of power from the rider to the pedals and there is no energy loss. The feet remain attached to the pedal throughout the travel, allowing both the push up and push down pedals. Releasing your foot only requires a quick twist to the side and the pedal releases, allowing you to put your foot down or off the bike. Many people choose clipless vs. Clip pedals because they hold the foot on the pedal even on uneven terrain and also make it easier to jump over obstacles.

Pros and cons of clipless pedal:


  • Maximum efficiency with direct transfer of power to the pedals
  • Secure attachment to the bike so you can focus and enjoy cycling
  • Don’t worry about your foot slipping and causing injury.
  • Easier to jump over obstacles


  • Specialized shoes are required.
  • You need to learn to click on and off the pedals.
  • It can be difficult to take your foot off the pedal in an emergency and crashes do happen.

So which ones do I choose?

You’ll need to figure out what style of driving you plan on doing the most. Will you mountain bike easy on non-technical trails, extreme descents, or pedal hard and technical trails? Once you decide what kind of riding you’ll be doing, you can review the three main styles of pedals and pick the one you think is best for you. Basic platform pedals come in various grips, but are generally best suited for casual, easy riding. By choosing clip vs. clipless pedals, the choice may come down to personal preference. Clipless pedals, once you get comfortable with them, are usually the best choice because they transfer power directly to the bike, making leg movement more efficient. It’s also always possible to change bike pedals if you decide a different type might work better for you.

Stunning model car display ideas

Whether you’re a die-hard model car collector or just a car enthusiast who has a favorite make and model, you’re probably well aware of the fact that diecast collectibles aren’t just simple toys.

Instead, diecast cars are popular collectibles for both kids and adults alike due to their highly detailed designs, intricate details, and full-scale replicas of history’s most sought-after cars.

Due to the precious nature of these replica cars, collectors and hobbyists alike need to have a stylish space to display their collections without fear of damage.

Consider these awesome ideas for displaying a model car collection in your home or office.

#1 – Buy a car show

Buying a diecast car display is a great idea if you’re looking for something a little more traditional with little work involved.

These screens come pre-built and ready to load as soon as they arrive. Plus, they can enhance any room in the house with their elegant glass features and built-in lighting components.

#2 – Use a vanity makeup case

If you’re looking for display ideas that are a bit more modern and space-saving, a vanity case is a great idea. These cases feature high-end finishes and stylish design features that allow them to fit nicely into any room in your home.

Additionally, this display case can be decorated with lace or other visually appealing materials to ensure a stunning display that will not only be safe for your diecast cars, but will also help you keep them organized.

#3 – Use an old bookcase

If you have an old bookcase that isn’t being used, consider repurposing it as a model car showcase. Most die-cast cars are small enough to fit on shelves, and many models come with their own stands to ensure secure standing.

While this display may require a bit of rearranging, it is ultimately the most cost-effective solution for those who want to display their collection on a budget.

#4 – Use a picture frame display case

If you have a collection of model cars that needs to be displayed in a more visible space, display cases with picture frames are a fantastic idea. You can also paint picture frames or add lace as an added design element that will impress any collector!

#5 – Renovate a wall space

A model car display can also be created by taking advantage of a blank wall in your home. Consider hiring a professional contracting service to hollow out a wall space so it can be custom designed with shelving to display your collection. This is a great idea if you are already updating the interiors of your home.

lighting considerations

Consider where the exhibition display will ultimately be so that you can ensure ample lighting for the display area. Ideal lighting solutions include:

  • soft track lighting
  • LED base
  • colored rotating lighting

Whether you want something traditional or new and elegant, displays can be created in a variety of styles. But no matter what you decide, make sure your model cars are always protected from excess dirt, debris, and moisture to prevent damage to your prized collectibles.

The best safaris in Africa

As you drive through the picturesque savannah landscape, tall grass and pristine acacia trees dot the horizon. Animal sightings are overwhelming. At first sight, he will run to his camera to take a photo of the grazing animals; giraffes, zebras, wildebeests, impalas, waterbucks and oryx. It is incredible to think how many centuries these lands have traveled. The real hunt on safari is looking for the Big Five. Encounter elephants, rhinos, buffalo, leopards and of course lions, they all come with time. On some safaris, they can arrive in one day.

Have you always wanted to go on a safari, but imagined an incredibly high price? If you’re looking for a good safari on a budget, some are easily accessible, self-driving is allowed, and entrance fees are wallet-friendly. How about packing for a safari? There are some essential items not to forget. With our top picks in Africa, you’ll see all the expected animals, including a good shot at the Big Five.

What animals will I see on Safari?

It is normal to see a lot of wildlife and sometimes it can be overwhelming. Expect to see LOTS of wildebeest and antelope. Some parks have many elephants and giraffes. Depending on your luck and patience, seeing Lions is common, but you may only see a few. Seeing leopards and rhinos is rare. They are in many parks, but they are elusive. Leopards tend to hide in trees while rhinos stay away from vehicles.

Can I go on a safari on a budget?

Yes, you absolutely can! Safaris in East Africa are the most expensive, starting with the Serengeti and Masai Mara. If you’re on a tight budget, drop your plans to visit those parks as they will rack up a cost of several hundred each day you visit. While they are worth it, they are not cheap. The safaris in South Africa and Namibia are great, they have very cheap entrance fees and you can drive alone in a small sedan. Renting a car is cheap in those countries, which makes a safari very affordable. Another way to save money on safari is to bring or rent a tent. National Parks in Namibia and SA have campgrounds and it gets expensive if you don’t intend to camp.

What is the Best Safari in Africa?

Every safari is unique. The landscapes create a different environment for what you are seeing every day. Some make it very difficult to spot animals, while others are wide open and much easier. Some safaris need 4×4 and you usually need to hire a driver, especially those in East Africa. Autonomous driving is permitted on most safaris in South Africa, ideal for those independent travelers or backpackers on a budget. Finding the best African safari for YOU depends on what you’re looking for, but chances are you’ll find it in one of these parks:

The best safaris in Africa:

Masai Mara National Park, Kenya

What to expect:

This iconic park, when one thinks of a safari, rolling savannas teeming with animal life like no other, the Masai Mara fits the bill. Popular for decades as Africa’s premier park, the action here is second to none. In a matter of minutes you can see lions, rhinos, a leopard and some cheetahs. The Big 5 are all in this park and you have a good chance of seeing them all, possibly even in one day. Come during the wildebeest migration between July and early September for the most action and the famous river crossing, with the best time to come being early September.

• Autonomous driving is an option. The park requires only 4×4.

• The entrance fee to the park is $80 per day.

• Camping is available from $7 – $15 per person outside the park gates.

Norongoro Crater National Park, Tanzania

What to expect:

Norongoro Crater is the world’s largest unfilled, dormant caldera, with a floor of more than 100 square miles (260 square kilometers). The wildlife is impressive. Elephants, buffalo, giraffes and lions graze inside the crater. The elephants spend their last days in the Norongoro Crater. They travel hundreds of miles just to get there. The views are impressive with the crater walls surrounding the flat plains, and the wildlife is dense considering the size of the crater. It is a common side excursion as a day trip during a Serengeti safari.

• Autonomous driving is an option. They only require 4×4.

• The entrance fee to the park is $60 per day plus 18% VAT and $40 per day for the vehicle.

• Camp is $30 per night per person.

Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

What to expect:

When most think of big game parks and some of Africa’s most iconic parks, the Serengeti is often the first to drop the tongue. This famous park in Tanzania borders the Masai Mara to the south and is a huge park. With over 3,000 lions and 1,000 leopards, the Serengeti is home to what most say is the largest population of big cats in Africa. There are also more than 2 million wildebeest, of which more than 1.5 million migrate annually to the northern Masai Mara as part of the Great Migration. Come during the migration between July and early September for the most action and the famous river crossings, with the best time to come in early September.

• Autonomous driving is an option. They only require 4×4.

• The entrance fee to the park is $60 per day plus 18% VAT and $40 per day for the vehicle.

• Camp is $30 per night per person.

Etosha National Park, Namibia

What to expect:

This gem of a park in Namibia, not far from the picturesque Namib sand dunes, is one of the best parks in Africa. It is a very large park with a central salt plan that is flooded during the rainy season. The park has excellent walks along the salt pan and savannah, as well as through the forest. Many natural and man-made watering holes help animals to congregate, especially during the dry season. There are three main camping areas with watering holes to see at night. The park is full of wildlife. Lions, cheetahs, leopards, rhinos, wildebeests, zebras, giraffes, antelopes and elephants. Everyone calls Etosha home. We had several close encounters with lions. A cheetah mom tried to kill an antelope with her two cubs. Hundreds of giraffes would congregate to drink water. Etosha was one of our favorite safaris and is a great option for those on a budget. For the quality of the animals and the accessibility, this could be the best budget safari in Africa. The best time to visit is from May to October during the dry season.

• Autonomous driving is an option and 4×4 is not required.

• The cost of admission to the park is $6 per day plus $2 per car per day.

• Camps for up to 8 people are $18 per night.

Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda

What to expect:

Mountain gorillas can only be found in four national parks, all bordering the Virunga Mountains. You can visit the Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda, the Virunga National Park in the Congo, the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest in Uganda and the Mgahinga National Park in Uganda. Bwindi Impenetrable Forest has the largest number of mountain gorillas of any park, home to nearly 400 of the 900 living mountain gorillas. Visits are daily and you can often track large families with several large male silverbacks and young gorillas. This is unique to most African safaris, which is single-species hunting and entirely on foot, but the memories of this may beat all others.

• The best time to visit is from May to September when it is not the rainy season. Prices are lower during the rainy season, making it a great time for those on a budget.

• The Bwindi Mountain Trek costs $600 per person during the main season and $450 during the low season (April, May and November).

• Camping is $5 per person in the national park and $7-$10 at rest camps outside the park.

Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda

What to expect:

This highly underrated park is possibly the most diverse of these parks. It is home to the largest waterfall on the Nile River, Murchison Falls, along with excellent safaris and scenic Nile River boat cruises. The delta here by Lake Albert offers excellent hippo and bird watching. The savannah is impressive with rolling hills. We loved the unique landscaping in Murchison that was alphabetized with palm trees, a rare thing in the savannah. The park is home to many giraffes, hippos, exotic birds, lions, antelope, buffalo, crocodiles, and the occasional leopard. Chimpanzee walks are also available. The best time to visit is from May to September.

• Autonomous driving is an option and 4×4 is not required.

• The entrance fee to the park is $40 per day.

• Camp is $8 per person at Red Chili Rest Camp.

Moremi Game Reserve, Botswana

What to expect:

The Moremi Game Reserve, in northwestern Botswana, is adjacent to the Okavango Delta, and is well worth a visit when in Moremi. This park is one of the best safaris for self-drive enthusiasts. Coarse sand roads make for fun but challenging driving conditions through forests and smaller open plains. You can drive for a couple of days or take the longer trek through Moremi to Chobe for a 5-7 day Safari. Wildlife is very dense with elephants, giraffes, wildebeests, antelopes, lions, leopards, hyenas and the rare wild dogs. The best time to visit is June through September during the dry season, but when flooding is at its highest in the Okavango River Delta.

• Autonomous driving is an option. They only require 4×4.

• The entrance fee to the park is $11 per day plus $5 per day per vehicle.

• The cost of camping ranges from $15 to $50 per person, depending on each campsite.

Chobe National Park, Botswana

What to expect:

Chobe National Park is one of Africa’s premier parks and has some of the densest concentrations of animals in Africa. They are home to the second largest number of elephants in Africa. The animals travel hundreds of kilometers to make the journey to the Chobe River. Along with Moremi, this park is great for self-driving enthusiasts. Their game drives are excellent, but the real bonus is the Chobe River. Take a sunset boat cruise and watch as elephants cross the river, hundreds of hippos eating, exotic birds, crocodiles laying down and many other animals can be seen. The occasional lion can be found on the banks of the river having a drink. The best time to visit is from May to September.

• Autonomous driving is an option. They only require 4×4.

• The entrance fee to the park is $7 per day.

• The cost of camping ranges from $15 to $50 per person, depending on each campsite.

Storage for all your camping needs

When the weather is nice enough to start planning an off-road camping trip, Australians start thinking about when the perfect time will be to plan to pack up their vehicle, load up their families and get outside for a while. . in species. There are so many beautiful natural landscapes to enjoy and every Australian deserves some time to explore.

Of course, before you can officially pack up and hit the road, you’ll need to make sure you have all the things you want to take packed and ready to go. Depending on the size of the vehicle you drive, this could be easy or difficult. If you don’t have a lot of extra storage space in your vehicle, you can always do more by thinking about adding extra storage space in the form of functional drawers.

What kind of options are there?

There are all kinds of drawers and other storage options you can think of when you’re considering upgrading your vehicle’s space. You can check out the online ute drawer gallery for a full selection, but expect to be able to find these types of functional ute drawers when you’re shopping.

  • Stackable storage drawers: These drawer options can be stacked on top of each other, allowing you to add space on one side of the vehicle while dedicating the other half to your storage drawers. You can also place them next to each other instead of stacking them if you want to create more symmetry.
  • Sliding Storage Drawers: This is a popular option for people who carry tools or other small equipment, allowing you to easily slide out the drawer and find what you’re looking for.

If you look hard enough, you can even find underfloor storage options, allowing you to store things under the floor of your vehicle, providing even more room on top for whatever you want. Check out a gallery of ute drawers to see even more options you can get creative with.

packing up everything

When it’s time to pack up all your camping gear, think about how you can properly store things in your vehicle. If you have any of these storage options in your vehicle, you can easily load items like clothing and smaller gear in the storage drawers, while things like tents, snacks, and other camping gear can be loaded in the rear.

If you’re bringing items like bikes or ATVs, you should consider investing in a trailer to tow them behind you. Bikes can be placed on the roof of your vehicle, but your ATV and other large items like it can be safely towed behind you while towing a trailer.

Once you’ve packed everything up and are ready to go, you’re ready to set out on your camping trip and soak up all that Australia has to offer. Looking at photos of this beautiful land just doesn’t do the beautiful area justice, but you can easily see it for yourself on your next camping trip.

Historical development of automated sequencing using the Sanger method

Automated sequencing has been a technique used since the early 1980s. Although the technology has changed dramatically since its first use, the basic chemistry is still commonly used today. It is based on four basic steps: DNA purification, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, electrophoresis separation and analysis.

Sanger dye terminator chemistry

Although several methods were developed during the 1970s, the dye termination method invented by Fred Sanger is the accepted method used in automated sequencing. The amplification step in PCR combines a mixture of unprocessed DNA bases (dNTPs) and bases that cause termination (ddNTPs). The advantage of using ddNTP is that a number of DNA products amplified during PCR are terminated once the ddNTP is added. This creates a series of products that differ on a single basis. The end product is a combined soup containing products ranging from around 19 bases in length to hundreds of bases, each different by a single base. In the separating media, the total number of products would appear as a ladder. Furthermore, the ddNTPs are labeled to allow their detection.

Initially, radioactivity was used in the Dye-Terminator method

Each ddNTP that represented one of the four DNA bases also contained a radioactive tag. The amplified products were separated in media by electrophoresis. The medium was then removed and photographed to view the base sequence of the sample. However, the problem with this method was that there was no way to detect a difference between the ddNTP that labeled a G versus A, C, or T base. Therefore, it was necessary to amplify the sample in four separate reactions where only one ddNTP base was present. One tube would end only when the sequence had the base G, while the other three tubes would be labeled A, C, or T.

With this in mind, four separate reactions would be loaded separately into the media. Each base would appear as an incomplete straight. The researcher performing the sequencing would need to draw a line along four separate lanes in the media to determine the sequence of the four bases.

Fluorescent labels replaced by radioactivity

The requirement to use four lanes to determine a sequence was soon replaced with fluorescent labels on ddNTPs. Each ddNTP representing one of the four bases was labeled with a different fluorophore that would be detected as a different color: green for As, blue for Cs, red for Ts, and yellow for Gs. The need for four lanes was eliminated. This expanded the ability to sequence samples four times.

In addition, a system capable of detecting bases was also developed in the early 1980s, shortly after Sanger developed the Dye-Terminator method. The samples were loaded in the same medium used initially for the radioactive method. They were then installed in a machine that would run electrophoresis. This provided a second advantage. It was no longer necessary to keep the base ladder in the gel for later photography. Instead, as each band representing a base reached the end point in the middle, the automated machine photographed the color and sent this information to a computer. Once complete, the medium was simply discarded appropriately. This allowed to determine more amplified products increasing the capacity of the radioactive method two times more.

Automated sequencing equipment has evolved

The separation of the radioactive products of DNA amplification was done by a procedure called electrophoresis. Essentially, a reagent called acrylamide was poured between two glass plates where it would polymerize into a gel-like matrix called polyacrylamide. The samples would be loaded on top of the array and the electrical current would cause the DNA to migrate through the gel. Small products migrate faster than large products when an electrical current is applied because they incur less resistance.

The same process was used when the first automatic sequencers were developed. Over time, this technology continued to improve so that researchers could determine longer pieces of DNA and upload more samples. In general, the technology changed very little until the invention of capillary sequencers. Thin glass capillaries replaced bulky glass plates. No longer needed for gels. Instead, a new polymer was automatically injected each time samples were loaded. Even better was the amount of time to run an average sample. Glass plate gel electrophoresis could take more than 12 hours to determine a sequence of 400 or 500 bases. Glass capillaries could do the same job in just over 2 hours.

Like slab (glass plate) gel electrophoresis, capillary sequencing has continued to develop faster methods to sequence more samples. The overall result is tremendous compared to the original auto sequencers.

Today, science has continued to develop better methods for DNA sequencing. Next-generation sequencing has the ability to sequence an entire two-megabase genome in a few days. This same job would require months of preparation and processing for even the most high-tech Sanger sequencers. This does not mean that auto sequencers will be replaced. There is still a great need to sequence shorter pieces of DNA at a substantially lower total cost.

International Semi Truck Parts and Accessories

Semi Truck Parts and Accessories

Whether you’re a truck owner or a fleet manager, you can find International Semi Truck Parts and Accessories for your fleet. From bumpers to exhaust to seating and steering wheels, International semi trucks are known for their durability and reliability. If you’d like to add some style to your fleet, consider purchasing some custom or aftermarket parts. You’ll be pleased with the improved performance and look of your truck.

international parts online are manufactured by a variety of companies, ranging from Mitsubishi, Cummins, Eaton, and Allison to Hiniker and Bendix. Whether you’re looking for replacement parts for your truck’s engine or a new cab and body, you’ll find what you need from International Semi Truck Parts & Accessories. And if you’re in need of a new truck horn, you can find one from a reputable company like Big Machine Parts.

There are a wide range of sorts of discount markets for International truck parts, yet none is pretty much as extensive as the International truck spare parts discount market. A wide range of kinds of parts are sold in the International truck market, including tires, brake shoes, ventilation systems, and that’s just the beginning. Worldwide truck parts are likewise accessible for light trucks, for example, bike racks. Assuming you’re searching for the best arrangements on truck spare parts, this market merits a look.

International Semi Truck Parts and Accessories

One such market is the Middle East. TruckCare, laid out in 1986, is a dependable hotspot for truck spare parts in the Middle East. They are currently the biggest stockist in the district and are known as experts in hard core parts. The organization has a wide scope of truck and trailer spare parts to suit the necessities of a wide range of clients. Its topographical nearness to the mainland is another benefit. You can find a top notch, solid truck spare part for your truck or trailer at a serious cost.

With in excess of 400,000 vehicles out and about, it’s not hard to see the reason why the organization is zeroing in on uptime. A new extension of their FleetRite stores in Texas and Florida has incited a far reaching development system. The organization intends to open much more FleetRite areas this year. It is one of the main parts of the brand and has an uncommon standing. Similarly as significant, the armada agreeable FleetRite stores offer speedy answers for armada proprietors and drivers.

In the following five years, the Heavy Duty Truck Parts Dealers industry will encounter an unobtrusive development. A solid economy in 2018 will assist with expanding cargo shipping movement, supporting interest for uncompromising truck parts. This expansion in shipping action will expand the quantity of trucks out and about. The interest for rock solid truck spare parts will come from both new trucks and fix of the public armada. Notwithstanding, the underlying portion of this five-year time span will encounter more slow development because of an expansion in input costs.

Automotive Safety & Warning System – Freightliner Alarm

After spending money on a Freightliner truck you probably won’t sit back and relax because the next thing on your mind is how safe it is. Installing an alarm in your car is one of the best and cheapest ways to protect your car from thieves. A car alarm is a device that is installed in the car as a security measure with the ability to produce a loud sound when triggered. The sound can be in the form of pre-recorded sound or information, a siren, or flashing lights.

Investing in a car alarm will give you peace of mind knowing your car is secure. Installation of these car alarms is simple and will not take much time. They can be installed at the factory while the car is being built, or you can install them yourself by purchasing the alarm accessories and following the instructions provided. Your car dealer can also install them for you.

Car alarms are available in the market with a variety of features. Some of these features include a keyless entry system that allows you to lock and unlock the doors without inserting the key, another feature is the shock sensor that makes a loud sound when activated to alert you in case of any security issues. A remote start is another feature of these alarm systems. This allows you to start your car even when you are not yet seated. It also allows you to set your vehicle’s temperatures to provide a cooling or heating effect depending on what makes you comfortable. A camera can also be included to allow you to see images of your car’s surroundings, allowing you to be aware of what is happening.

You can include any or all of these features on your Freightliner truck. Having more features provides more security than having fewer features. The internet also offers a wide variety of car alarms that you can choose from. Their prices are also included to allow you to choose the best alarm at the most affordable price.

You could be using your Freightliner truck to transport valuable bulky items, or to transport business products for your customers, losing these valuables to thieves would be an absolute nightmare because you will incur a huge loss. Installing a car alarm system won’t cost much, but it will keep your truck safe and protect your customers’ items.