The difference between speech and speech

Public speaking can best be described as knowing the difference between speaking and talking. The former will be respected and revered, the latter despised and ridiculed. The man who can speak is a leader, the man who can speak is a fool. A speech will be remembered and recited for life, the speech will be forgotten five minutes after it is finished.

When acquiring public speaking skills it is vitally important to distinguish between speech and speech. A baby may speak, presenting slow, stuttering ideas that require the expert listener to understand. An out-of-town relative may need a translator to understand what the child wants when she speaks. Unless the listener knew what he was hearing, the little boy’s conversation would be little more than callous babble.

Speaking does not require a great deal of intelligence or cognitive ability. One can talk all day without ideas, opinions, information or expression and efficiently waste the time of anyone unlucky enough to get caught listening. Talking accomplishes nothing, changes nothing, and generally does little more than pass the time and boost the speaker’s ego. Talking is trivial and generally best avoided, unless one is attending a convention for chumps or trying to distract an overzealous mother-in-law trying to interrogate.

It was Shakespeare who perhaps best expressed the folly of speaking with the following description of Gratiano, a character drawn from the pages of his comedy The Merchant of Venice.

“Gratiano talks infinitely about nothing, more than any man in all of Venice. His reasons are like two grains of wheat hidden in two bushels of straw: you will search all day before you find them, and when you have them, they are not worth the search.” “.

If talking is talking about nothing, talking is talking about something. Speech, in its purest form, requires no translator, nor does the listener have to search to find the reason behind it. Clearly conveys an idea with enough conviction and argument to give it force. The man (or woman) who has an idea and can express it clearly, organize his thoughts and create a plan, is destined to become a leader among men. Why? Not because he has any particular leadership skills, or any qualifications that can’t be found in a crowd of his peers. Rarely does this individual possess any particular trait or characteristic that sets him apart from the crowd.

What you do have is the ability to think for yourself, focus your thoughts and ideas, and present them in a way that leads others to your point of view. This is the man who can lead a country into battle based on the strength of his conviction. He has the public speaking skills that will goad men into action, driving them on their own enthusiasm, and the ability to think on their feet and adjust their thoughts, actions and speech to any situation. This man will walk into a room full of tired and disillusioned veterans and inspire them to pick up their weapons and fight another day.

Public speaking requires an intimate understanding of the properties of speech, as well as the ability to present it correctly. If a speaker cannot distinguish between speech and speech, it is unlikely that he will be a speaker for long.

Crypto TREND – Second Edition

In the first edition of CRYPTO TREND we presented Crypto Currency (CC) and answered several questions about this new market space. There is a lot of NEWS in this market every day. Here are some highlights that give us an idea of ​​how new and exciting this market space is:

The world’s largest futures exchange will create a futures contract for Bitcoin

Terry Duffy, Chairman of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) said: “I think sometime in the second week of December you will see our [bitcoin futures] listing contract. Nowadays you can’t short bitcoin so there is only one way to do it. Either you buy it or sell it to someone else. So you create a two-sided market, I think it’s always much more efficient.”

CME intends to launch Bitcoin futures later in the year pending a regulatory review. If successful, this will give investors a viable way to go “long” or “short” Bitcoin. Some sellers of exchange-traded funds have also applied for bitcoin ETFs that track bitcoin futures.

These developments have the potential to allow people to invest in the cryptocurrency space without directly owning CC or using the services of a CC exchange. Bitcoin futures could make the digital asset more useful by allowing users and brokers to hedge their currency risks. That could increase cryptocurrency adoption by merchants who want to accept bitcoin payments but are wary of its volatile value. Institutional investors are also used to trading regulated futures, which are not plagued by money laundering concerns.

The CME move also suggests that Bitcoin has become too big to ignore, as the exchange seemed to write off crypto futures in the recent past. Almost everyone is talking about Bitcoin at brokerage houses and trading firms, which have suffered amid rising but unusually placid markets. If futures on one exchange were to take off, it would be almost impossible for any other exchange, like CME, to catch up, as scale and liquidity are important in derivatives markets.

“You can’t ignore the fact that this is increasingly becoming a story that won’t go away,” Duffy said in an interview with CNBC. There are “mainstream companies” that want access to bitcoin and there is “huge pent-up demand” from customers, she said. Duffy also believes that bringing institutional traders into the market could make Bitcoin less volatile.

Japanese Village to Use Crypto to Raise Capital for Municipal Revitalization

The Japanese town of Nishiawakura is investigating the idea of ​​holding an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) to raise capital for municipal revitalization. This is a very novel approach, and they can request support from the national government or seek private investment. Several ICOs have had serious problems and many investors are skeptical that any new token has value, especially if the ICO turns out to be another hoax or scam. Bitcoin was certainly not a joke.


We did not mention ICO in the first edition of Crypto Trend, so let’s mention it now. Unlike an Initial Public Offering (IPO), where a company has an actual product or service for sale and wants you to buy shares in their company, anyone who wants to start a new Blockchain project with the intention of creating a ICO can have it. a new token on your chain. ICOs are unregulated and several have been total shams. However, a legitimate ICO can raise a large amount of cash to fund a new Blockchain project and network. It is typical for an ICO to generate a high token price near the beginning and then come back to reality soon after. Because an ICO is relatively easy to maintain if you know the technology and have a few dollars, there have been many, and today we have around 800 tokens up for grabs. All of these tokens have a name, they are all cryptocurrencies, and except for the well-known tokens like Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin, they are called altcoins. At this time, Crypto Trend does not recommend participating in an ICO, as the risks are extremely high.

As we said in #1, this market is the “Wild West” at the moment, and we advise caution. Some investors and early adopters have made huge profits in this market space; however, there are many who have lost much, or everything. Governments are considering regulations as they want to know about every transaction in order to tax them all. They all have a lot of debt and no cash.

Until now, the cryptocurrency market has avoided many conventional government and banking financial pitfalls and pitfalls, and Blockchain technology has the potential to solve many more problems.

A great feature of Bitcoin is that the creators chose a finite number of coins that can be generated (21 million), which ensures that this crypto currency can never be inflated. Governments can print as much money (fiat currency) as they want and inflate their currency to death.

Future articles will delve into specific recommendations, however, make no mistake, investing early in this sector will only be for your most speculative capital, money that you can afford to lose.

CRYPTO TREND will be your guide as long as you are ready to invest in this market space.

Stay tuned!

How to choose the right barcode printer

Implementing a barcode system can be an invaluable part of any successful business. It can make the job of retailer, management and employees easier. In return, they can provide better service to customers and focus more on keeping customers happy.

Barcodes have proven useful in various types of business enterprises. It makes inventory management easier for everyone involved, as scanning barcodes with handheld scanners makes inventory counting faster and more accurate. It can also be used to better track documents and assets, and monitor field employees. The combination of all these benefits leads to higher sales and better profits.

Are you already planning to use barcodes in your business, but don’t know how? The answer lies in barcode software programs and barcode printers. Here are some barcode solutions for you:

Dot matrix printers are the most common barcode solutions. The dot matrix was the first method used to make barcodes, and is still sometimes used because it is easily accessible and relatively inexpensive. It also uses multi-pass ribbons which are generally cheaper than toners or inks.

Ribbons should always be monitored because as they wear, the contrast of printed labels is affected. In barcode systems, color contrast is very important for the barcode scanner to accurately decode the barcode. Bleeding, caused by ink saturation, can also affect barcode quality. One limitation of the dot matrix label maker is that it is difficult to produce small barcodes due to the dot size limitations of the printer. Also, you can only print on paper, so the labels aren’t as durable.

Another barcode solution is the ink jet printer. This type of printer is also relatively inexpensive, and papers with adhesives (sticker papers) are readily available in many stores. However, inkjet printers print very slowly. Other than that, the printer itself is less resistant to dust, dirt, vibration, and other environmental factors, and there is a very limited amount of barcode software that supports inkjet printers.

Laser printers are better barcode solutions. They act like a photocopier, which means they can print quickly. Also, laser printers print with high resolution and high density, which results in a high-quality image. This type of printer is often the choice when it is necessary to print documents with barcodes.

One drawback to laser printers is the cost of supplies. Laser printers use a large amount of black toner when used as barcode label makers. Also, you can’t print on chemical and water resistant paper, so the labels are also less durable.

Thermal printers have special features that can be used to print single, individual labels instead of batches or sheets. This eliminates the need to print additional labels, as is often required with laser or dot-matrix printers, which can save you money on supplies.

Among the barcode solutions already mentioned, thermal printers are generally the only barcode label manufacturer that is capable of printing individual labels. Thermal printers also produce high-quality barcode labels at a low cost, since the only printing consumable you need is the special heat-sensitive paper to be used. A disadvantage of thermal printers is that the labels produced are sensitive to heat and light and can fade after 6-8 months.

The most important advantage of thermal printers is that they can be synchronized with point of sale software. Thermal printers can interface with POS programs to print product information such as model number, price, and product names or brief descriptions.

In general, the thermal barcode printer is the most efficient to use because it is made specifically for barcode printing, and since the prices of thermal printers are now relatively cheap, they are the best option for companies that looking to print high-speed, durable barcode labels.

How to choose an antivirus solution in practice

Choosing antivirus protection can be very difficult. The market is highly competitive and the products are at the forefront of information technology.

Antivirus vendors have both the knowledge (gained from the daily war against cybercriminals) and the money to wage an epic brand battle in the field of IT security. There are many vendors and each of them is releasing dozens of features in their product. How do you really choose between them? Let me try to delve into this topic in this article.

security is boring

Security is always in conflict with usability. Whether you’re working on your documents, playing video games, or watching a movie, no amount of security measures or procedures will really help your business. On the contrary, they are playing games: they slow down your computer, ask for different passwords, force you to choose a suitable folder to save your files, etc.

Yes, I understand the need; a security payload is the price for your security, but it’s no fun at all. Modern marketing tries to get people to engage, have fun, get some kind of closure by using a product. What kind of shutdown can you expect from antivirus software?

The only thing you need from an antivirus solution is to shut up and remove viruses. This is why antivirus vendors never have a large fan base. LOST has 7.5 million fans on Facebook, Symantec has 35 thousand.

To make matters worse, almost no security measures give you a guarantee or some kind of psychological closure. Do you remember the movie “Mission: Impossible”? There was a very well protected computer and yet Tom Cruise came and hacked it. With any antivirus product, there is always a chance that viruses will get through to your defense. That’s sad.

endless race

Antivirus software developers are constantly at war with cybercriminals and with each other.

There are many ways to make money illegally on the Internet: spam, prescription drug sales, pornography, gambling, identity theft, credit card fraud, etc. And where the money is, brilliant (but devious) minds apply their knowledge to get it. Every day criminals try to find a new way to infect your PCs.

When a new virus is created, it is tested against the most important antivirus protections; They shouldn’t be able to detect it. He then pushes himself “into the wild” and begins to do his dirty work. Antivirus software labs around the world work 24/7/365 to try to detect new viruses through “honey pots” and various other techniques. Normally, when they get an example, it’s not very difficult to create a cure. Within hours (sometimes minutes) after detection, software from this particular vendor can and will protect you against this virus. (Major antivirus brands also have proactive protection against yet unknown viruses. They try to analyze the behavior of any new program and define whether it is a virus or not. But the intelligence of such programs is still not very good.)

Normally, all the major antivirus labs in the world exchange information about the latest viruses with each other. So we can assume that all antivirus products are very good at finding new viruses. The problem is that hundreds of new viruses are developed every day. You never know when someone will make a mistake and let it slide.

It looks like a Formula 1 race. We know that all the cars are good. In reality, they are almost 99.99% perfect and the drivers are geniuses. However, they have to compete with each other. Someone will make a mistake and it will be “not so perfect” this time.

Antivirus providers have to compete every day, 24 hours a day, on a Formula 1 track to prove their performance.

Size does matter

The first logical thought is to try to find the leaders in the market. Who sells more antivirus products in the world? Perhaps they are better at what they do and the “invisible hand” of the market has already picked out the favourites.

According to Softwaretop100, the largest companies are:

  • Symantec
  • mcafee
  • microtrend
  • (Kaspersky is aggressively reaching for third place)

The rest are much smaller.

However, this does not include so-called “free antivirus” software. This means that a provider offers a basic version of their security software absolutely free and makes money with expanded products or services. Free is a magic word, and according to some sources, free antivirus protection is installed on 50% to 60% of all computers in the world! The free antivirus industry leaders are:

  • avast!
  • Avira

They all start with A, and they are all European (Avira is German, avast! and AVG are from the Czech Republic)

Independent tests

There are independent labs that try to test virus protection products to see how well they perform in the endless race. Let’s see if we can find which antivirus product is the best.

VA test

AV-Test tests more than 20 products and publishes a report every quarter. They give a score from 0 to 6 in three categories (protection, repair, usability) and the worst products are not “certified”.

Let’s see who got the highest rating for protection:

  • Q2 2010: AVG, GData, Symantec, Panda
  • 2010 Q3: Kaspersky PC Tools
  • Q4 2010: BitDefender, BullGuard, Kaspersky, Panda
  • 2011 Q1: BitDefender

I don’t see any particular leader here. Some months, some providers are the best, another month, another is.

Let’s see how the 3 obvious market leaders (Symantec, McAfee, Trend Micro) fare in this test:

  • Symantec: 5.5,5.0,5.0,5.5 (near maximum scores)
  • McAfee:5.0,3.5,3.5,3.0 (not good)
  • Trend Micro: 2.5, 4.0, 4.5, 3.5 (not good)


AV-Comparatives tests about 20 products almost every month and has a series of tests to show the performance in antivirus protection.

Almost all leaders detect more than 90% of viruses, but there are those who detect close to 100%. Let’s see who is the best at on-demand detection:

  • February 2010: G Data, Avira, Panda
  • August 2010: G Data, TrustPort, McAfee
  • February 2011: G Data, TrustPort, avast!

Obviously, G Data is doing very well. It is strange that it is not always the best according to AV-Test.

Let’s follow the market leaders by their position in the top 20:

  • Symantec: 7,6,12 (middle positions)
  • McAfee: 5,3,10 (near the top)
  • Trend Micro: 18,13,13 (almost always near the bottom)

“Lower” in this case means >90% detection; We’re talking about 90% of the thousands of newest and most dangerous virus threats, so I guess it’s good enough anyway.

virus bulletin

Virus Bulletin is the most advanced site, measuring the widest range of vendor products and providing the most extensive results. They have a lot of historical data on the performance of the antivirus product. Let’s do your RAP (Reactive and Proactive) test from October 2010 to April 2011.

The best providers were: Trustport, Coranti, Avira, G Data, Kaspersky.

How are the leaders?

  • Symantec: ~90%-80% (definitely the top quadrant)
  • McAfee: ~75%-75% (average results)
  • Trend Micro has been boycotting this test for 3 years (hmm)

What can be said about antivirus protection, if it is tested by independent sources?

– The results do not match. Completely different providers rise to the top and fall to the bottom without any indication as to why.

– The main sales providers are average or below average in their level of protection and the best places are given to small businesses.

– The same provider can show a perfect result on the same test in 2010 and drop a year later

– Antivirus vendor websites are littered with certifications obtained from one of these three labs. Each of the 52 providers has at least one. I’m not sure how to compare them based on this information.

power of the fourth power

There are many computer magazines. And they are issued every month. Market research says that advice from computer news sources is one of the most important factors in customers’ decision-making for antivirus products.

I gathered information from various PC magazines, both online and offline. Let’s see which antivirus products they think is the best:

Dennis Technology Labs, “PC Total Protection Suites 2011”, February 2011

Best picks: Symantec, Trend Micro, Webroot

PassMark Software, “Consumer Security Product Performance Benchmarks (February 3, 2011 Edition)”, February 2011.

The best options: Symantec, ESET, G-Data

Consumer Search

Best picks: Symantec, Avast!, Sophos


Best Picks: BitDefender, Kaspersky, Webroot


The best options: ESET, Symantec, McAfee


Best Picks: K7, Symantec, Kaspersky


Best Picks: Kaspersky, McAfee, Trend Micro

I could go on posting dozens of examples, but I think I’ve made my point. Choose any one of 52 providers and there will be an IT magazine ranking you #1.

What do sellers say about themselves?

Vendors are telling stories. Within many antivirus vendors there is a marketing tool called a “battlecard”. It is a list of the characteristics of your product and the comparison with the competition.

Of course, this is not public information, but it is more or less openly available to software sales channel partners: distributors and resellers. You can google a bit and find examples of research and comparison charts put out by the vendors themselves.

(Disclaimer: This information is provided as is and the way I obtained it, via Google, is subject to criticism.)

For examples of such “battle cards”, Google a vendor name + “battle card” and you’re sure to get some interesting results.

To do?

Choosing an antivirus product is like choosing a car. Everyone has their preferences, and vendor marketing machines spend millions to change our opinions. But there are no Ferraris or Porsches among the antivirus products, just a huge row of midsize sedans.

You need one, sure.

But if you need to choose between antivirus software, don’t! Select the one you’re using today or the one your engineer friend likes. Or the one recommended by your company’s IT department. If one of the products is causing you performance issues, choose another. If you have 5 PCs at home and the subscription becomes expensive, choose a cheaper one.

A much more interesting question is how to buy antivirus software. What do you need to know to buy the software safely, quickly and at the best price? Unfortunately, this is beyond the scope of this article.

Your Article Resource Box: The Secret To Getting Maximum Traffic From Each And Every Article

Article marketing is the number one source of free traffic on the internet if you get your Resource Box right. Do this wrong and you will have wasted all your time. Get it right and you’re done!

What really is a resource box

Call it a resource box, author bio, etc., what it really is is your chance to create a compelling call to action for your reader. Even though it’s called an author bio, it’s not the time for you to tell the reader everything about yourself and convince them that you’re an expert. In fact, if you haven’t proven yourself an expert in your article, it’s too late to try it now.

Although it is an official Call to Action, I like to teach my students and members to use what I call “invitation language” in their Resource Box. Invitation language can be as simple as “and now I’d like to invite you to…” and then name the next action you’d like them to take. This is the opposite of something like “Get this great new product now and all your problems will be solved by tomorrow and if you don’t, you’ll be broke forever.”

I’m sure I exaggerated a bit, but not much.

Here’s how to do it

You want the resource box to flow directly from your article, since it is the next paragraph in the article. Starting with “Jim Smith is blah blah blah” is like announcing to the reader that the article is over and that they can stop reading now. Not the result you want at all, right?

Instead, you can start with a nice transition phrase that begins with the word “and.” For example, “And now I would like to…” or “And now you can…” is a great way to start.

Then, going back to my notion of invitation language, you simply invite the reader to take the next action that you want them to take. For example, you can say “And now you can claim your free instant access to…” whatever you’re offering them. The language of invitation attracts them instead of driving them away.

Then, and only then, do I mention my name, and only then so that the good information you are about to get is linked in your mind to my name and brand.

Here is a complete example:

The importance of a graduation

Why is a graduation considered so important to so many people? What makes it special that a singular person is rising from one academic position to the next? How is any of this relevant? All questions have answers, but none as simple as these. A graduation is important because it is a rite of passage for many people. When a person graduates, it signifies the passage from a previous form of existence to a more mature being. As this maturity progresses, many people come to the realization that a graduation can be life changing; the single or two-phase bookmark helps to unite different parts of a life with a common memory. A graduation is not just an ending, it is a new beginning; the start of a new chapter in a person’s life, whether it’s another school year or entering the workforce. Graduations help people remember the things they accomplished in the past, as well as help people look to the future. When people think of a graduation, they remember friends and family they did or saw (respectively) during that time period; They think about the honors they have achieved and the many ways those honors will help them pursue opportunities in the future. Graduations are so multi-faceted that it’s almost impossible to explain exactly how useful and memorable they can be to one person. However, it is possible to illustrate how much a graduation can mean to a single person.

be a graduate

For a young or mature girl (or boy), a graduation can be one of the most important days of her life. Depending on the age, different things have been shown to the child: for a kindergarten graduation gown, many students feel that they have grown or matured in their childhood world. In cases of a transition from middle school, students may feel that they are now strong or strong enough to take care of themselves, and finally, in a transition from high school to college, students finally realize who are about to enter the world of hard work. adults These are all very important stages in life; Growing feelings of vulnerability or invincibility are simple things that we as people normally go through. Graduation dress for ceremonies can only help in this. These ceremonies lend legitimacy to the transition and include the reality that the phase you are now entering is indeed ‘real’. The robes they wear are materialistic markers of this, and every part of the ceremony that takes place is meant to show or commemorate the same thing: change. Because, could change really exist if nothing acknowledges its presence? Would there be any form of change if no one acts on it? Of course, sometimes it’s hard to notice, but most of the time it’s a change for the better; that’s what a graduation is all about: changing for the better and being prepared for the new future that will be waiting for you after the ceremonies. Graduation is a positive experience that packs a punch, so no matter the age group, just sit back and enjoy the memory.

Forced feminization in the real world

So you grew up fantasizing about being feminized in different ways, right?

The popular girls at school capture you and turn you into, perhaps, a submissive female toy.

Or you get drugged at a party and wake up to find yourself in your nightgown, fully made up and tied to a bed.

Perhaps, a couple of friends of yours come to visit and find the door unlocked. Meanwhile, you are prancing around on a very cute, frilly little doll in front of the mirror.

Do any of these scenes sound familiar to you? Are they exciting to you? Of course they are, you’re a fag!

But how can any of these fantasies come true in the real world? Can they? The answer is yes.

I’ll give you an example of how I’ve done this in the past. The trapped and blackmailed fantasy is probably the most popular. Let’s say we’ve discussed your entire fetish and agree to make it a reality.

I’ll give you a spare key and leave the house for a while. You have to come in and try on a pair of my panties. I come home a little later and I see you like this and you freak out.


You blush, but you know this is just a game, right? I quickly grab my camera from the dresser and take a few photos. Without another word I download them to my computer and show them to you.

“I think I’ll upload this later, and post your name and phone number, okay?”

“What?” you say. “You can’t do that to me, we discussed it Teresa.”

“Let’s see now, I guess I could post them on Twitter, and you have a Facebook page, right? I’ll add that link.”

“OK-OK, what do you want me to do?” you ask now taking this a bit more seriously.

I hand you a matching bra and seat you at the makeup table. Now the fun begins. Slowly, very slowly, I give you a complete makeover explaining each step. You love this and if it wasn’t for your chastity belt it would have been over a long time ago.

Tell me what a good girl you are and I’ll make you speak in a female voice. We’re having fun right? I just started painting your nails.

there is a knock on the door. You jump. “WHO IS THAT! I CAN’T BE SEEN LIKE THIS, OH NO!”

“It’s just a package I’ve been waiting for, don’t be so nervous. Stay here and I’ll get it.” Several minutes pass and you hear women’s voices inside and you smell her perfume.

“Guess who it was, honey? It’s my neighbors Bonnie and Susan. Did I forget to mention I invited them over this afternoon?”

Your masked eyes nearly bulged out of your head. Your pretty red lips are open and you can’t seem to get a word out. I gently take your hand and lead you into the living room where the girls are waiting. I sit you in front of them and finish your nails while I tell them about your fantasy in full. Even the part about how you want to be teased and humiliated and treated like a fucking sissy.

While your nail polish dries, the girls finish their wine and wait for you to tell us you’re ready.

Now the real fun begins…

More at

bodybuilding fat loss

Regular exercise and fat loss are good for you and will help make you healthier, but they won’t cause the definition and toning of your body that you can get from using bodybuilding exercise routines. For women, these routines will not add bulk or make you look like a professional wrestler. They will give you a lean and toned physique and make you look and feel much better about yourself. Even a modest bodybuilding workout with weights will help you build stronger bones, stop bone loss, and add lean muscle to your shape.

Many people are not aware that you start to lose 1% of your total lean muscle mass each year, starting in your 20s. This means that by the time you reach 30 you have already effectively lost 10% of your muscle mass. Since it takes more calories to support 1 pound of muscle, you’re losing shape and definition and you’re also losing some ability to burn fat. If you want to change this process, you’ll need to take advantage of lifting weights now.

There are many weightlifting tips that you may find helpful as you begin to make weight and resistance training a part of your exercise program. You will need to understand that after an intense workout, you need to rest your body for a full day. If you provided challenging weights, you will have caused some small tears in your muscles and they will need time to repair. When they regenerate, the muscle tissue is slightly larger and slightly stronger.

You won’t start to notice these changes in appearance for several months, but with each successive training period you will be able to tell the difference in how much easier it has become. It is very important to stay hydrated during intense exercise routines, so drink plenty of water. Work slowly and steadily to increase the amount of weight you work with and always increase weights in small intervals.

Bodybuilding for fat loss and a healthier, leaner body is becoming more popular as people realize the benefits of weight training and a healthy diet. Start your training today, firm up and get healthier.

New Jersey Bankruptcy Lawyer Explains When One or Both Spouses Should File for Bankruptcy Protection

The obligation to pay the debt is based on an agreement between the person(s) and the creditor. One spouse is not responsible for the other spouse’s debt solely because of the marriage. If only one spouse has agreed to pay a debt, then only that spouse is responsible for the debt. If both spouses are obligated and have agreed to pay the debt, then both spouses are responsible for 100% of the debt. If both spouses have agreed to pay the debt, the creditor can pursue and collect any percentage of either spouse’s debt, but never in excess of the total amount owed. In other words, the creditor can get 60% from one spouse and 40% from the other, or 20% from one spouse and 80% from the other spouse.

If two people want to file bankruptcy together, the two people must be married. In general, it is not necessary for both spouses to file for chapter 13 or 7 protection. When evaluating whether one spouse should file individually or jointly, each person should carefully consider all of their financial circumstances, independently and together with the other spouse. . It may not be beneficial for both spouses to file for bankruptcy protection.

A person who files for chapter 7 bankruptcy protection and meets all the criteria will cancel and eliminate certain debts. The following scenario relates to a married couple who have a joint debt with a creditor and only the husband files for chapter 7 bankruptcy protection. If the husband meets all of the chapter 7 criteria for a discharge, his debt to the creditor will be deleted. However, the creditor will be allowed to pursue the wife for any balance owed to the creditor because she is not protected from filing for bankruptcy. If you file a joint return and get a discharge, the creditor will not be able to pursue you for the debt.

Unsecured debt is debt that is not secured by property, such as: credit card debt; personal loan; and, health care debt, etc.

The following pertains to a chapter 13. In a chapter 13, the person(s) filing (debtor) must make monthly payments to a trustee (trustee), generally for a period of 36 to 60 months. The amount and number of payments are based on numerous factors. In addition, the determination of which creditors are entitled to the funds from the trustee’s monthly payment is based on numerous factors. The debtor may be required to pay all, part, or none of the unsecured debt, through the trustee’s monthly payments (bankruptcy plan).

In a chapter 13, the debtor is required to treat all unsecured creditors equally. Therefore, a spouse filing an individual return cannot decide to pay 100% of the debt to one credit card company and 5% to another credit card company. Generally, if one unsecured creditor is paid 100%, all unsecured creditors must be paid 100%. If unsecured creditors are receiving less than 100%, each creditor must be paid pro rata.

The following scenario involves a husband who owes a joint debt to his wife and files a chapter 13, individually and without his wife. Immediately after the chapter 13 filing, the “automatic stay” and “co-signer’s stay” apply. of pursuing the spouse (wife) who does not file bankruptcy, who has a joint debt with the spouse (husband) of the affair (husband) does not pay 100% of the debt to the unsecured creditor. , who files individually, pays less than 100% to an unsecured creditor, the creditor may apply to the court for permission to proceed against the non-filing joint and several debtor spouse, for the balance that will not be paid through trustee payments.

An individual may file a Chapter 13 in order to save a home from foreclosure. Generally, if the mortgage(s) and note(s) are in both spouses’ names, and they cannot modify either mortgage and/or note, only one spouse should apply for save the house from foreclosure.

An individual may file a chapter 13 in order to save a car from repossession. Generally, if the financing is in both spouses’ names and they cannot modify the financing agreement, only one spouse needs to apply to save the car from repossession. If the financing is in the name of one of the spouses, generally only that spouse would have to apply to save the car. This interpretation may vary.

New Jersey Bankruptcy Attorney, Robert Manchel, Esq. is the author of this article. Robert Manchel is certified as a consumer law bankruptcy attorney by the American Board of Certification, which is accredited by the American Bar Association.

Additional bankruptcy information may be obtained by calling Mr. Manchel toll-free at 1(866)-503-5655 or by visiting his website at

Robert Manchel handles cases from the following counties: Cumberland: County; Atlantic County; Salem County; Gloucester County; Camden County; Burlington County; Hunterdon County; Somerset County; Middlesex County; ocean county; Mercer County; Monmouth County; and Philadelphia.

Disclaimer: Bankruptcy laws are complex and may be applied differently from case to case and state to state. There can be numerous exceptions and variations to each law and rule. Do not trust the information provided in this article. If you are considering filing for bankruptcy protection or have foreclosure issues, you should consult with an experienced attorney. We are a debt relief agency. We help people file for bankruptcy relief under the bankruptcy code.

© 2008 Copyright Law Offices of Robert Manchel. All rights reserved.

The Heart Moves On – Using the ceremony to mark the end of a relationship

Divorce or the end of a long-term relationship is a particularly difficult experience because it makes you face two different sets of issues.

  • Problems with endings, separation and letting go (disappointment, anger, sadness, fear and trying to achieve closure)
  • Matters of acceptance, forgiveness, openness to new beginnings and new possibilities.

A Divorce/End of Relationship Ceremony can boost that process. The difference between a divorce ceremony and an ending ceremony is largely time. In Australia, where no-fault divorce depends solely on a period of separation, the relationship has been formally over for quite some time before the divorce is final. Either ceremony is an appropriate way to mark the end of your relationship with ritual and ceremony.

Whatever you choose, if the ceremony is done correctly, it will have a deep spiritual content that will increase your sense of belonging. In the context of human behavior, what matters are emotions. The process of preparing for the ceremony, and the ceremony itself, supports positive emotions at a time of transition from one state of being to another by having a positive impact on the subconscious. A positive ceremony eases anxiety about the ability to live separate lives and moves emotions away from self-recrimination toward celebration of growth and learning.

Some couples choose to have a divorce ceremony once the relationship has legally ended with the divorce being granted. But I find that, given the opportunity, couples may choose to acknowledge the end of the relationship at some point during the initial period of separation, long before formal proceedings have begun. This can be very helpful when there are children in the relationship because the parents’ continued commitment to those children is formally made clear, and the children are formally cleared of blame for the breakup of the marriage. (Many children blame themselves and this needs to be addressed.)

There are two types of divorce/end of relationship ceremony. Where former partners can be respectful of one another and can put aside their differences to focus on the needs of their children, the ceremony can be seen as a positive step towards separation. Vows can be retracted and formal declarations of support for each other and for the children are made. This is particularly helpful since the children often believe that they are the cause of the breakup, and a formal public ceremony in which the former partners emphasize that their separation does not mean a change in their relationship with the children can be very helpful.

The second type of ceremony, in which only one couple participates, is more similar to a funeral. The good parts of the relationship are praised and steps are taken to help the ‘surviving part’ move on.

Ultimately, however, the results of your ceremony depend on the skill of your celebrant.

If you are planning a ceremony to mark the end of a relationship, I urge you to focus on two things:

  • heal the wounds of relationship breakdown, and
  • forward.

I was horrified to see examples of “post-divorce” ceremonies that were virtually indistinguishable from black magic, such as sticking pins into a spouse’s effigy or burying a coffin containing a photo of the former spouse.

Frankly, I refuse to hold ceremonies where the potential client wants everyone present to make a negative statement about the ex-spouse. Some celebrants are not so picky and accept this, although some may refuse to allow children of the marriage to make a negative statement against their mother or father. However, the child is there and listens to the statements, which is distressing and potentially harmful.

When approaching a celebrant for a termination or divorce ceremony, keep in mind that the celebrant’s role is not be a substitute directorbut to be a facilitator, using your skills to work with people at a time of heightened emotions.

The process of developing your ceremony should result in a ceremony that allows you to:

  • say goodbye to the past relationship
  • recognize and celebrate what was good in that relationship and the growth each party experienced during and as a result of the relationship
  • affirm your values
  • express appreciation
  • move through the transition sentence between being half a couple and being a single person
  • acknowledge your new status and the positive aspects of this new status.